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Acute Limb Ischemia in One Dose Vaccination of COVID-19

Kemas Dahlan, Yulianto Kusnadi, Edo Tondas, Daffa Faturrahman

Introduction: The extraordinary thrombotic manifestations of Corona virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, presenting as venous and arterial thrombosis have been reported in several literatures, but in this report, we presented a special case of acute limb ischemia in a patient that has been vaccinated by COVID-19 vaccine. Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is defined as decreasing in arterial perfusion of a limb with a threat to viability of the limb and mortality. COVID-19 has been declared as a global pandemic by the WHO. Patients with COVID-19 have abnormalities in blood coagulation parameters and are prone to thromboembolic events. This hypercoagulable state caused by COVID-19 mainly manifests as venous thromboembolism while peripheral arterial involvement is less frequent.

Case: A 54-year diabetic and smoker male has already got one dose COVID-19 vaccination came to our emergency unit with severe acute respiratory syndrome and pain, pale and paresthesia of his left leg. There was pneumonia pattern according to chest X-ray and a ground glass opacity in chest CT-scan, he was confirmed infected by COVID-19 according to RT-PCR test. From CT-Angiography we found multiple thrombosis in the distal aorta, superficial femoral artery (SFA), anterior tibial artery (ATA), and posterior tibial artery (PTA) of left lower extremity. Initial treatment we started with unfractionated heparin, oxygenation, intravenous fluid and analgesia. We managed the patient in isolation ward special for COVID-19. We did thrombectomy to save the limb, nevertheless in few days after we performed amputation at the level of talonavicular joint to the distal part of left foot caused by gangrene.

Conclusion: Vaccination can protect from COVID-19 if we vaccinated with full dose and our immune system able to create antibody. The condition will be different in immunocompromised condition and we get not full dose vaccination. Covid-19 Patient with Diabetes and smoker could have higher risk to develop acute limb ischemia because of hypercoagulable state. Management of a COVID-19 patient with cute limb ischemia is more complicated and challenging. Although we have already vaccinated life style modification like wearing a mask, social distancing and using hand sanitizer can give us more protection from Covid 19.

Keywords: acute limb ischemia, COVID-19 vaccination, heparinization, thrombectomy

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